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Rewards & Fees

All the participants of the Subspace Network are compensated for the work they do to keep the network live and secure. In this context, we define the following terms:

  • Fees: The payments for transactions on the Subspace Network.
  • Rewards: The compensation for the work performed by the participants of the Subspace Network via the issuance of the newly minted SSC by the protocol.

Different participants receive their compensation through a combination of the above based on their role.


Currently, farmers receive:

  • fees for the transactions and bundles they include in consensus chain blocks,
  • block rewards for the blocks they proposed, issued by the protocol,
  • vote rewards issued by the protocol.


Currently, operators are solely earning the fees for domain transactions they execute. Since domain transactions (e.g. EVM contract calls) are usually much more computationally heavy than those performed on the consensus chain (e.g. balance transfers), they are sufficiently expensive to compensate operators fairly for their work. The operators receive the reward for the executed transactions only after the corresponding domain block has cleared the challenge period. For more details, see Domain Block Fees.


Currently, nominators receive a portion of the fees of the operator they nominated, based on their shares in the pool. For more details on how the pool shares and fees are calculated, see Nomination Pools.

Transaction Fees

Each transaction on the Subspace Network has a length and a weight. Length of a transaction is the number of bytes it consumes on the network. Weight of a transaction is the number of picoseconds it takes to execute it by a node with reference hardware. Subspace Network separates the fees to be paid for a transaction into storage and compute fees. Storage fees are paid by the participants of the Subspace Network for the storage space they consume for including the transaction in a block and eventually archiving it. Compute fees are paid for the computational resources they consume while executing the transaction.

Storage fee depends on the length of the transaction and the amount of available storage on the network. The formula for the storage fee is:

storage fee per byte=total credit supplytotal space pledged/min replication factorhistory sizeshannonsbyte\text{storage fee per byte} = \frac{\text{total credit supply}}{\text{total space pledged}/\text{min replication factor}-\text{history size}} \frac{shannons}{byte}

storage fee(tx)=storage fee per bytelength(tx) shannons\text{storage fee} \left(\text{tx}\right) = \text{storage fee per byte}*\text{length(tx)}\ shannons

For the purposes of storage fee calculation, the total credit supply consists of all SSC in existence including staked or otherwise locked. The total space pledged to the network is divided by the protocol's minimum replication factor of 50, which ensures that the network is able to reliably store all the transactions that are included in the consensus chain. The history size is the total size of all the blocks in the consensus chain that are archived.

Compute fee depends on the weight of the transaction and the demand on the network. Compute fees for the execution of extrinsics on the consensus chain (e.g., balance transfers) are collected by the block proposer. Compute fees for executing transaction bundles on domains are paid to the domain operators who submit the Execution Receipt (ER) containing this bundle (split equally between all operators who submit this ER) after the ER has cleared the challenge period. Subspace implements Polkadot’s slow adjusting fee mechanism. The fee is slightly adjusted every block based on utilization of available block weight by normal extrinsics.